An Olympic disciplinary panel says "powerful" evidence proved that two-time bobsled gold medalist Alexander Zubkov took part in the 2014 Sochi Games doping conspiracy.
In its full decision published on Thursday of a Nov. 24 verdict, the IOC disciplinary panel chaired by Denis Oswald detailed why it disqualified Zubkov and banned him for life from the Olympics.
The verdicts states one sample had "an abnormally high level of salt" and two scratched bottles were tampered with.
Laboratory staff added salt to clean stored urine that was swapped in for steroid-tainted samples during the games.
Never miss a local story.
The panel says similar evidence exists in seven more cases from Russia's Sochi bobsled teams.
Zubkov, who carried Russia's flag at the Sochi opening ceremony, has appealed to the Court of Arbitration for Sport.