They make up the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, yet Hispanics are increasingly locked out of home ownership because of tighter lending standards that rely on outdated measures of creditworthiness.
Comprising more than 17 percent of the population right now and projected to double, Hispanics are a political and economic force to be reckoned with. And they potentially represent an answer to turning around a sagging national home ownership rate that’s approaching levels not seen since before the fall of the Berlin Wall.
The national rate of home ownership fell to 63.8 percent over the first three months of 2015. The last time it was lower was the final quarter of 1989, when it stood at 63.7 percent.
The problem for Hispanics, who in 2014 had an ownership rate of 45.4 percent, a 14-year low, is that conventional tools for gauging creditworthiness are locking them out in large numbers.
In South Florida, Hispanics have a higher rate of home ownership than they do nationwide — but they are still less likely than an average local resident to own a home.
About 52 percent of Hispanics in Miami-Dade own a home compared to a county-wide average of 56 percent. In Broward, Hispanics have a home ownership rate of 55 percent compared to a county-wide average of 66 percent. Those numbers are from 2013, the last year for which county-level data is available from the U.S. Census.
“Communities of color under the current scoring model aren’t being accurately captured,” said Joe Nery, president-elect of the National Association of Hispanic Real Estate Professionals. “You don’t have the opportunity to establish your credit.”
Hispanics are more likely to pay in cash, and they have extended families under a single roof with a higher tendency to pool resources. Yet that counts for little in the traditional scores used by credit-reporting agencies and banks to determine whether an applicant qualifies for a mortgage or car loan.
“The current [credit] models were established in the 1980s and early ’90s and really don’t account for those methods of payment,” said Nery, a real estate attorney in Chicago. “Unfortunately that limits the access to loan products, especially for those of minority descent.”
Hispanics in South Florida have a harder time getting mortgage loans than non-Hispanic whites, according to a Zillow analysis released earlier this year.
About 24 percent of local Hispanics seeking a conventional mortgage loan were turned down compared to 18 percent of white applicants, Zillow found.
In fact, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau issued a report in early May noting that 26 million Americans are “credit invisible,” meaning they have no credit history on file with any of the major credit-reporting companies such as Experian, Equifax and Transunion. About 15 percent of African-American and Hispanic consumers are among those 26 million, the report said.
Currently, credit reporting is dominated by FICO scores. They date back to 1956, when software developers Bill Fair and Earl Isaac created a program to gauge the risk of a consumer credit default. Lenders now purchase more than 10 billion FICO credit scores annually for use in making loan decisions. Consumers are granted free access to their FICO score, but the three major credit reporting agencies require personal information.
FICO’s current methodology dates back to around 2004 and relies on a borrower’s income, payment history, debt load and to a lesser degree on how often lenders take a look at a borrower’s credit history.
Here’s the rub for Hispanic borrowers: When looking at payment history, the FICO scoring relies on whether payments have been timely on credit card bills, mortgages, car loans and the like. There’s greater weight given to lengthy repayment of credit.
“For most first-time homebuyers . . . their largest monthly expense is their rent payment,” said Joe Castillo, the managing broker at ERA Mi Casa Real Estate in Chicago. “And at the current time the credit agencies do not provide landlords larger or even small avenues to report that payment. So that is a huge misstep, or missed opportunity.”
Post-crisis lending standards are decidedly tougher, and that hits all borrowers. But for Hispanics there’s also the real issue of what is being measured. Cellphone payments are also not counted in conventional payment history.
“Post-downturn, the Latino market has been unevenly excluded from being able to buy. Folks who definitely have the ability to buy, they have the household income,” said Leo Pareja, a Realtor for Keller Williams in Falls Church, Virginia, where there are many immigrant buyers from Central America. “They’ve been operating in a non-credit environment. They’ve been paying rent on time, cellphone bills on time.”
If there were alternate measures of creditworthiness, many of these Latino consumers would join the ranks of homeowners, he said.
Since 2007, the three major credit-reporting companies have supported an alternative to FICO called VantageScore. It factors in a wider array of bill-payment history and looks at credit use over shorter periods, which picks up infrequent users, creating its own credit scoring system.
VantageScore executives estimate that there are 30 million to 35 million consumers considered “unscoreable” under FICO models, and that about 7.6 million of them could be scored and potentially qualify for a mortgage. Many are Hispanics.
Around for more than seven years and now on version 3.0, VantageScore has received scant use by mortgage lenders.
“Virtually zero,” confirmed Barrett Burns, president and CEO of VantageScore Solutions, noting Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac mandate that lenders use the 2004 FICO scoring if the lender is going to sell the mortgage to these government-controlled entities. “Those models were built on pre-recession data from 1995 to 2000. Those models are outdated.”
Most mortgage loans from banks are resold to Fannie and Freddie, so lenders are boxed in by the requirements.
That may be changing. The Federal Housing Finance Agency, which regulates Fannie and Freddie, has listed as a 2015 priority testing alternate credit scores and credit histories in loan-decision models employed by the two mortgage-finance titans.
Speaking to the National Association of Realtors earlier in April, Housing and Urban Development Secretary Julian Castro said the Federal Housing Administration too is exploring alternative scoring models for FHA loans.
There’s more at stake than just access to credit, said Kenneth Fears, director of regional economics and housing finance for the National Association of Realtors.
“Twenty or 30 years from now, the demographic makeup of the United States is going to be very, very different,” he said. “What’s under the hood, the makeup, will be very different, and we need to create an environment that is more conducive to upward mobility.”
Access to credit brings upward mobility, but many first- and second-generation Hispanics are credit-averse. They often come from countries where the less-affluent borrow and lend outside the banking system. It’s why Alicia Trevino supports broader financial literacy efforts to educate about the importance of credit and a credit history.
“We haven’t had the long line of ancestry of how to do it in America,” said Trevino, a nationally recognized Realtor in Mesquite, Texas. “Our main focus is not just home ownership.”