At last, a soaring look at Palenque’s Mayan ruins
08/16/2014 12:00 AM
08/13/2014 2:34 PM
From seat 7A, I look down to see miles of dense rain forest blanketing the ground below me. I’m 10,000 feet above the Mexican state of Chiapas, coming in for a landing at Palenque, where an ancient Mesoamerican city flourished for five centuries, until its Mayan inhabitants mysteriously abandoned it, leaving their temples, homes and palaces to be reclaimed by the encroaching forest, not to be rediscovered for nearly 900 years.
It’s a journey three decades in the making. My whole life I’ve been curious about my namesake civilization, and now this enigmatic, remote ruin is finally within reach, thanks to the long-awaited opening of Palenque’s new airport, with regular nonstops from Mexico City.
Palenque made international news in the early 1950s, thanks to an unprecedented discovery by Mexican archaeologist Alberto Ruz Lhuillier. He was excavating a temple buried deep in the rain forest when he removed a stone slab from the floor and discovered a secret staircase, packed with rubble and leading down into the heart of the pyramid.
For four years, Ruz and his team meticulously cleared the passageway, at the very bottom of which was a narrow opening that appeared to lead to a room beyond. Squeezing into the vaulted chamber, Ruz found himself staring at a massive carved-stone sarcophagus. Inside lay the remains of the greatest ruler of one of the greatest cities of one of the ancient world’s greatest civilizations.
Ruz’s remarkable discovery of the intact tomb of the Mayan king Pakal, who ruled Palenque in the seventh century, is often touted as the greatest archaeological find ever made in the Americas.
The elaborate carvings on Pakal’s sarcophagus lid have captivated many. Some of the more out-there theorists have interpreted them as proof that the king was, in fact, an extraterrestrial. (The Maya were expert astronomers, mathematicians and engineers, after all. Why not space travel?)
Until now, Palenque always seemed painfully out of reach, hours by bus from the nearest town. But even Chiapas’ winding mountainous roads haven’t stopped generations of archaeologists, history buffs and New Agers from making the pilgrimage to this extraordinary place, in an attempt to unlock the mysteries of the Maya.
With the opening of the new airport, there’s a palpable sense of momentum in Palenque town: Roads are being repaved, new public art has been erected and the central square has been dug up as the city prepares to unveil a new and improved look for the expected influx of tourists. Many hotels and resorts, from budget to luxe, line the three-mile road between the city and the entrance to the archaeological site.
I made a reservation at a funky compound just outside the park entrance. Comprising cabins, camping areas, restaurants and bars run by several different groups, the mini-village of El Panchán (Mayan for “above the sky”) was founded in the 1980s by a passionate scholar of Mayan culture, Don Moisés Morales Márquez, and has been a home base for travelers ever since.
Set on 12 acres of jungle rain forest, El Panchán is beloved as much for its lively atmosphere and natural surroundings as for its prices (my shabby but clean large room with private bath will cost me just $18 a night). The property is scattered with dreadlocked backpackers and signs advertising ancient Mayan tattooing and something called “body expansion,” while the telltale thump of a bongo drum echoes from beyond a stand of trees.
VISITING THE RUINS
The next morning, I pile into a tour van for a short drive up the hill to the ruin zone, which was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. We’re greeted by packs of guides offering their services — for an extra fee, of course.
Our guide is well worth the expense, brandishing an encyclopedic knowledge of Mayan history as she guides us along jungle footpaths, warning us to be on the lookout for toucans, snakes and anteaters but not to worry about the jaguars (they’re nocturnal).
The rain forest seems to be moving before our eyes. We pass trees the size of tall buildings locked in a deadly embrace with strangler ficus, and Tarzan-style lianas the size of a man’s thigh.
There’s evidence of farming at Palenque as far back as 100 B.C., but the Maya Classic period, when the civilization flourished, was between about A.D. 200 and 900. Mayan scribes recorded reams of information in well-preserved coded glyphs, chronicling a detailed history of Palenque’s golden age — though precious little about its fall.
We emerge in “downtown” Palenque, where several imposing temples and a massive palace complex rise from a clearing. This was the city’s administrative center, representing just 5 percent of an estimated 1,500 structures, most not yet excavated. I try to imagine the city at its height 14 centuries ago, when many of those structures would have been painted bright red, the Mayan color of life.
Peeking inside the Temple of the Red Queen, we learn that the Maya even painted the bodies of their dead nobles red. When archaeologists excavated this temple in 1994, they discovered a tomb containing the remains of a woman whose red bones had absorbed a sprinkling of toxic cinnabar. This special burial, along with the location of the tomb (adjacent to Pakal’s own), led them to suspect that she may have been the king’s wife.
Pakal’s own tomb sits deep within an adjacent pyramid, called the Temple of the Inscriptions. One of the largest step pyramids in Mesoamerica, it has nine levels, corresponding to the nine levels of the Mayan underworld. Ruz found the dismembered remains of five young sacrificial victims just outside the entrance to the tomb, while inside, of course, was the colossal 20-ton sarcophagus, containing jade jewelry, an elaborate funerary mask and the royal bones.
I’m dying to see the sarcophagus, but my hopes are dashed when our guide says that the tomb has long since been closed to the public.
“Human sweat is toxic and damages the preservation,” she says.
I have to content myself with a tour of the enormous palace, where we get a glimpse of just how advanced the Maya were: Pakal had indoor plumbing. Tourists are lining up in the palace bathroom complex to pose for photos on the royal family’s granite throne, which very discreetly drained into a separate sewage system and wound up far from the city in a seventh century version of a septic tank.
A round stone altar set at the base of the palace was used to receive offerings to the gods. Human sacrifice wasn’t uncommon, as Ruz gruesomely discovered outside Pakal’s tomb, but ritual blood offerings that didn’t kill the subject were more frequent. Some Mayan nobles would cut off their fingertips or pierce their tongues with a fish bone to let blood for one of their numerous gods.
I climb to the top of a temple honoring the corn god and look out across the ruined city to the valley below. Tourists chatter in French, German, Russian, English and Spanish, and in the nearby jungle, the monkeys carry on with their howling.
What ultimately felled the Maya? Archaeologists can’t point to one sole reason, hypothesizing that Palenque was probably done in by a combination of overpopulation, deforestation, drought and power disputes among a growing class of nobles. Though cities such as Palenque were abandoned by about A.D. 1000, the Maya are still very much with us: About 7 million descendants live in Guatemala and southern Mexico.
I’m reminded of this as our tour van sails through a verdant valley ringed by indigo hills on the way to our next stop, a waterfall some 40 minutes away. The entire landscape is dripping with vegetation in every imaginable shade of green, with every branch, rock, crag and hillside carpeted in leaves and moss, sprouting with life. We pass humble homes with chickens pecking around the yard and men hauling firewood on their backs, holding it in place with a leather strap slung around their foreheads. Old-school technology.
My cellphone signal has long since dwindled to nothing. The 21st century feels far away. A hand-painted road sign reminds us, “You are in Zapatista territory: here, the people rule and the government obeys.”
It’s a stark reminder that the Maya aren’t just a forgotten people from the history books. They’ve survived the collapse of civilizations, the conquest of the Spanish and, most recently, the expropriation of communal lands in the name of development and free trade, prompting an armed uprising against the Mexican government in 1994 by a group of masked indigenous peoples calling themselves the Zapatistas, after early 20th-century revolutionary Emiliano Zapata. Twenty years on, Zapatista settlements seem to maintain an uneasy coexistence with the state, preserving, for now, an age-old way of life.
Our tour van takes us to see the beautiful 100-foot waterfall at Misol-Ha as well as the Agua Azul, another stunning cascade of otherworldly aquamarine water, and I splash and swim and take photos alongside the other tourists.
Chiapas brims with a striking natural beauty. But the enduring nature of the Maya, as eternal as the roaring rivers and the purple mountains, will stay with me longer than any snapshot.
Going to Palenque
Getting there: American, Interjet and Aeromexico fly nonstop from Miami to Mexico City; Interjet Airlines flies from Mexico City to the new Palenque airport.
Palenque Archaeological Zone & Museum, www.inah.gob.mx. Entrance fee of about $4.50 includes admission to the museum. Many companies offer one- and two-day package tours of major archaeological sites (Palenque, Yaxchilán, Bonampak), waterfalls (Agua Azul, Misol-Ha) and an ecological reserve (from $10 not including admission fees to $85 inclusive). El Panchán arranges tours through Trans Tulum; ask at reception or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Money: Many establishments in Chiapas accept only cash and often can’t make change for large bills; plan accordingly. ATMs are available in Palenque town.
WHERE TO STAY
El Panchán, Carretera Ruinas KM 4.5; www.elpanchan.com. Affordable lodging and camping at a funky jungle compound near the entrance to the ruins. Cabins from about $18, cash only.
Piedra de Agua, Carretera Ruinas KM 2.5; 011-52-01-916-345-0842; www.palenque.piedradeagua.com. A tranquil boutique hotel whose 10 rooms feature private terraces with hot tubs and hammocks. Rooms from $95.
WHERE TO EAT
Don Muchos Restaurant & Bar, Carretera Ruinas KM 4.5; www.elpanchan.com/en/restaurante.html. Pizza, pastas and nightly live entertainment at this “Italian Mexican” gathering spot in El Panchán. Entrees about $10. Cash only.
Restaurante Maya Cañada, Primera Av. Norte poniente Colonia, La Cañada; 011-52-01-916-345-0216; www.restaurantemayacanada.com. Authentic regional fare in town, including chapay (heart of palm, about $5) and Palenque-style enchiladas bathed in Chiapanecan mole sauce (about $7).
Join the Discussion
Miami Herald is pleased to provide this opportunity to share information, experiences and observations about what's in the news. Some of the comments may be reprinted elsewhere on the site or in the newspaper. We encourage lively, open debate on the issues of the day, and ask that you refrain from profanity, hate speech, personal comments and remarks that are off point. Thank you for taking the time to offer your thoughts.