The votes largely reflected geography. Senators from more rural, more conservative states sided with gun rights advocates. Senators with more urban constituencies backed gun control.
Gun rights supporters tried to get some changes to the bill, and those too failed. A bid to expand concealed-carry laws got 57 votes. An alternative to the background check compromise got 52.
Many had thought the tortured memory of Newtown would finally help win at least the background check effort.
If tragedy strikes again if innocents are gunned down in a classroom or a theater or a restaurant I could not live with myself as a father, as a husband, as a grandfather or as a friend knowing that I didnt do everything in my power to prevent it, said Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D-Nev.
But conscience meant different things to different senators.
Reids Nevada colleague, Republican Sen. Dean Heller, was seen as a potential swing vote for the background check compromise. He voted no.
The onerous paperwork and expansion of federal power mandated in this legislation are too great of a concern, he explained in a statement. I believe that this legislation could lead to the creation of a national gun registry and puts additional burdens on law-abiding citizens.
That was the opponents chief complaint. The background check provision was viewed as a mild form of gun control. Crafted by gun rights backers Sens. Joe Manchin, D-W.Va., and Pat Toomey, R-Pa., it would extend background checks to gun shows and online sales but would exempt private transactions.
Manchin, a National Rifle Association member, pleaded with colleagues to back the measure and said on the Senate floor that the NRA had lied about the measures reach.
There is not a universal background check, he said, answering critics. There is nothing in this bill that basically says that youre living in a neighborhood, and you want to sell your neighbor your gun, you can do it. No background checks are required.
Other opponents argued that the Manchin-Toomey approach simply wouldnt work.
We should not further strain the existing broken system by expanding the use of an incomplete database to more transactions, said Sen. Charles Grassley, R-Iowa. We should fix the existing system.
Grassley and Sens. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., and Ted Cruz, R-Texas, offered an alternative that would increase the number of mental health records entered into the federal background check database.
The Senate voted on a host of other gun provisions. Sen. John Cornyn, R-Texas, tried to require states to respect concealed-carry gun permits issued by other states. Cornyn, speaking on the Senate floor Wednesday, insisted that it wouldnt establish a national standard for concealed-carry.
What it would do is to effectively treat concealed-carry licenses like a drivers license, Cornyn said. If youre driving from Virginia to Texas, you dont have to obtain a separate drivers license for each state you drive through.
But Sen. Charles Schumer, D-N.Y., drew a line at his states border.
Concealed-carry is my greatest worry, he told reporters Tuesday. The good news there is, instead of needing 60 votes, we need 41 to defeat the amendment.
The Senate also voted on a ban on assault weapons and high-capacity magazines long sought by Feinstein. She had succeeded nearly two decades earlier getting an assault weapons ban passed and launched a forceful renewed effort after the Newtown shootings, but by Wednesday morning, she had all but conceded that the push would not succeed.
Not every issue we vote on in the Senate is a life or death matter I believe this is, she said on the Senate floor. I urge my colleagues to stand tall and support this amendment.
But few senators were present one was Sen. Heidi Heitkamp, a North Dakota Democrat who was presiding over the empty chamber. She voted no on Feinsteins amendment.