This week, we are holding a three-day meeting in Mexico City to discuss how to boost the involvement of young people in politics and expand their role in consolidating democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 youth organizations, young political leaders and governmental counterparts will participate.
Electoral democracy has spread and consolidated in our region since the early ’90s. But the quality of our democracies is a concern.
Citizens are frustrated by wide disparities in wealth and power, and there is weak popular participation in public affairs — especially among young generations. Moreover, public and private corruption, citizen insecurity and weak public institutions are major threats.
Youth involvement in politics is crucial to improve democracies — and not only in Latin America. Almost half the world’s population is under 25, and more than one third is aged 12-24. This fact, along with social and economic inequality among youth expressed in recent social movements like the Arab Spring, Spain’s 15M, Mexico’s YoSoy132 movement and the student protests in Chile reaffirm the need to address the young generation’s demands and recognize young people’s critical role in promoting social change.
Of the 600 million people in Latin America and the Caribbean, more than 26 percent are aged 15-29. This is a unique opportunity for the region’s development and for its present and future governance.
The U.N. Development Program’s Human Development Reports have shown that young people have enormous potential as agents of change. But despite Latin America’s remarkable progress in reducing poverty and inequality, and its strides toward strong democracies with free and transparent elections, structural problems perpetuate unequal rights and opportunities among citizens, including in job opportunities and access to public goods and services.
All of this directly affects young people.
Income, gender, ethnic origin or dwelling conditions are decisive barriers to young citizens’ rights.
• One in every four young people aged 15-29 in the region are poor or extremely poor.
• Only 35 percent have access to education.
• About half complete basic education, but only 18 percent attend college, and access to quality education is unequal.
• More worrying still: Some 20 million young Latin Americans aged 15-18 neither work nor study. That’s nearly one in every five, 54 percent of them female and 46 percent male.
• Many young people are exposed to tremendous risk and violence. The region comprises less than 9 percent of the world’s population but accounts for 27 percent of its homicides, UNDP has found. As a result, public perceptions of the young are distorted. Those from low-income communities in particular are seen as potentially violent, morally weak and frequent substance abusers.
A recent UNESCO study has found that young men and women in Latin America see themselves as largely underrepresented and disenfranchised from traditional political mechanisms. Only 5-10 percent claim to take part of some kind of citizen engagement — normally focused on sports and religious-related activities. At the same time, boosting young people’s political participation is one of the main concerns and demands of youth organizations.
Since effective youth participation strengthens and renews democracy, over the next three days in Mexico we will discuss what governments, civil society, and the UN are doing to boost political inclusion of young people in the region.
We will also discuss the promise of technology and social networks, including electronic platforms linked to UNDP, whose Virtual School has trained numerous young men and women in the region, notably those of African or indigenous descent, on political inclusion.
The region needs to promote youth political participation. Generations of Latin Americans now have the privilege of living in democratic societies. Now it’s up to us all to help them get involved and shape their own future.
Heraldo Muñoz, a former Chilean ambassador and president of the U.N. Security Council, serves as assistant secretary-general and U.N. Development Program director for Latin America and the Caribbean.
Leonard Pitts’ column will return next week.