In 1999, EPO was injected every third or fourth day -- into a vein, not under the skin, was the way Ferrari taught them -- Hamilton said, and they'd discard syringes in empty Coke cans. On Stage 9, Armstrong climbed past riders with ease and dominated the next day on the Alpe d'Huez ascent.
According to the report, retroactive testing of Armstrong's blood from the 1999 race revealed EPO in six samples. Hamilton and Landis said Armstrong admitted he tested positive during the 2001 Tour of Switzerland but made the result go away, implying he had bribed the international cycling union.
After Armstrong won his fourth Tour, he pressured Vande Velde to step up his doping and follow Ferrari's plan. Andreu said he was also pressured by Armstrong. Zabriskie agonized over doping but Bruyneel reassured him that everyone was doing it. Zabriskie later sang to Bruyneel his variation on the Jimi Hendrix "Purple Haze" classic: "EPO, all in my veins, lately things just don't seem the same...'scuse me while I pass this guy."
Once tests for EPO improved and random testing was instituted, the team relied more on blood doping, microdoses of EPO and testosterone patches. Riders were often tipped to when testers were coming. During a race in Spain, Hincapie warned Armstrong that testers were waiting at the team hotel, so Armstrong dropped out of the race.
USADA said Armstrong's blood values during his comeback Tours in 2009 and 2010 were consistent with blood doping and he was still communicating with Ferrari through emails with Ferrari's son.
Ferrari and Dr. Luis Garcia del Moral received lifetime bans from USADA. Bruyneel, Dr. Pedro Celaya and trainer Jose "Pepe" Marti are taking their cases to arbitration.